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Segregated witness is a technology that moves some information recorded into the bitcoin system known as the blockchain into a separate recording. When someone sends bitcoin to another, the technology must verify that the sender has enough in his account. Once the technology verifies this, it “signs” the recording (block) as a witness. Each bitcoin recording is limited to 1 megabyte (MB) in size and new recordings are made every 10 minutes. Because the signature takes up a lot of space in the recording, relocating it to a different recording, also known as segregating, will allow many more transactions to be recorded every 10 minutes.
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